Environmentally friendly practices are crucial to the mission of our museums, which, as houses of preservation, are uniquely suited to modeling green behavior and sustainability. In The Green Museum, authors Sarah Brophy and Elizabeth Wylie offer a complete handbook to guide museum staff in incorporating green design into new construction and day-to-day operations. Sustainable practices can save on operating costs and even make museums attractive to new fundraising sources, as Brophy and Wylie show in case studies of museums that have already taken steps to become green.
In this easy-to-read book, the authors demystify the process of going green, including detailed explanations of the basics of recycling, options for environmentally friendly exhibit design, and how to conduct energy audits. The Green Museum is full of practical information for museums of any size and a vital resource for every museum that wants to remain relevant in an increasingly green world.
The Green Museum is printed with soy-based ink on recycled stock. Professional bodies such as AIC, tion will occur at present remains unanswered.
The Green Museum: A Primer on Environmental Practice (Brophy and Wylie)
Not only has more scientific research been initiated, equipment to do than on any deep knowledge of the several museums, libraries, and archives have taken leadership effect of small variations on the exhibit. Kathleen Dardes partments. This effort seeks to inform environmental is head of GCI Education. James Druzik is a GCI senior scientist. Addressing the need for more research on real 1. Brown and William B. International Council of Museums formerly International Institute of Intellectual studies of climate-induced damage in the field.
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These Co-operation , Manual on the Conservation of Paintings London: Archetype studies will help identify more precisely the conditions Publications, , Marjorie L. Responding to the necessity of interdisciplinary 5. George L. Harold J.
Plenderleith and Paul Philippot, Climatology and Conservation in Museums mental strategies, the education component will tar- Rome: International Center for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of get the wider conservation community, including Cultural Property, , , The education 18—23 September London: International Institute for Conservation of Historic program is designed to improve understanding of and Artistic Works, Conservation Research into the Museum Climate The Current Landscape By Stefan Michalski not good enough to settle which of several competing models is correct for the role of humidity in paper deterioration.
For risk In the world of research and its institutions, there is analysis purposes, however, these rivalries are not significant. I believe conservation science falls into the second low RH, while beneficial, was not necessary in addition to low category, and so results must be judged by how well they answer temperature, and to calculate how operational parameters such practical questions.
Our big hole in advice was the abso- the various types and levels of incorrect relative humidity RH , and lute calibration of these lifetimes—and what we meant by lifetime. In they added a method based on Here are three of them. These methods abandon the perature combinations that allowed mold growth, and the grace classical method of building a model of simplified reality based period between the onset of those conditions and the appearance on carefully controlled experiments on carefully controlled bits of of mold.
Like sociologists, these researchers observe complex tools for estimating mold risk. The goal was not simply to find the typical vulnerability of a collection, but, more impor- tant, to determine the highest reliably measured vulnerability. Users can only wish now for an Internet tool based on these plots! Magic for Archives To those of us raised on the paper-and-film conservation science literature before , the field seemed stuck in quibbling over how to use a century-old equation named after Swedish scientist Eric Hagan in the Canadian Conservation Institute machine shop, operating a digitally controlled milling machine during fabrication of his automated and climate- Svante Arrhenius.
Dependence on humidity was also mooted, and controlled apparatus for measuring stress relaxation in ten paint samples at once. When we understand how widely or frequently humidity and temperature must fluctuate in order to cause cracking or flaking, then we can better assess the risks of more sustainable climate control targets. Right: Detail of St.
Luke, Simone Martini, Siena, Italy, s. Cecilia, Italy, Photos: Courtesy of the J. Once correlations have been discovered in a known popula- painting as the humidity changed from low to high and back again.
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In the late books become too weak to handle. And David Scott While I was scouring technical journals back to the nineteenth clarified the multiple RH thresholds that a caretaker of bronzes century for my review in Art in Transit: Handbook for Packing and needed to know. However, for iron, whose vulnerability can be Transporting Paintings, it became clear to me that our field was woe- compounded by the ubiquitous contaminant salt, there was no fully unaware of relevant work from even the obvious industries, comprehensive overview of the RH decision until , when let alone the less obvious.
Their work the paint industry itself was still trying to understand paint failure.
These were, in fact, the equations for our hockey stick plots. The decade after Art in Transit was a bit of a lull. Data accu- fluctuations and mechanics mulated but not systematically. The necessary concepts of visco- The beginning of useful mechanical modeling was Marion elasticity and fatigue gained traction.
They attacked the question of the climate response of panel paintings and polychromes not only energetically but systematically, from com- prehensive measuring of expansion coefficients for many wood species, through acoustic emission and computer modeling, cul- minating in cyclic fatigue testing of real gesso on real wood. In the last few years, academics in university departments of mechanical engineering Loughborough University in Leicester and building physics the Technical University of Eindhoven have Details of crack variations related to climate fluctuations in one of many oil-on- collaborated with museums to apply their state-of-the-art computer canvas portraits of Bavarian monarchs in the Ancestral Gallery of Munich Residenz.
Unrestored and unmoved, the portrait shows the effects of centuries in one place. Such collaborations have produced promising There are almost no cracks in the area over the wooden stretcher bars since they nuggets, but the graduate student life cycle inhibits momentum moderated daily climate fluctuations.
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But do we fully understand the crack variations, their formation, and their potential propagation? The task of assembling these nuggets into a practical whole will fall to our own community. We have perhaps half a dozen people world- question for modelers: Could the strength of paints, as pigmenta- wide who are supported long-term to work on this issue, and maybe tion and climate varied, be modeled within the same viscoelastic a dozen graduate students working on directly related theses.
And we will have to be change and stiffness change to stress the hockey stick curve and, honest and ruthless with ourselves whenever paths of inquiry now, to fracture. My own recent work uses a type of software developed for For the modeling approach, we need to address some major risk analysis, Analytica.
The Green Museum: A Primer on Environmental Practice
It allows one to build up a model by link- holes in our data. The most important deficiency, I think, concerns ing bits and pieces of other models and available data, all within the effect of natural aging of the materials on their mechanical a user-friendly graphic called, appropriately enough, an influence properties, especially strength. No amount of studies on artificial- diagram. At the same time, it permits one to simulate variability in ly aged samples will convince the users; we need to measure these all the factors considered by the model, such as variations in how properties on well-characterized natural samples.
This means artists mixed their paints, variations in wood strength, and varia- adopting microscopic mechanical analysis, one of the exciting tions in how objects were constructed—and to see how the possibil- new tools to appear in the last decade. These interacting For the correlational approach, we need to engage the caretak- variables are the crux at the heart of our climate advice dilemma. In our experience, vulnerability, and we must find a way to code that, too, for the ma- the dominant uncertainties during risk analysis for protection chine.
The science of It is an exciting time for collaboration. Every year, exciting new tools for the analysis and mea- Stefan Michalski is a senior conservation scientist at the Canadian surement of mechanical phenomena appear, and hundreds of Conservation Institute.
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This is not without reason. Loose veneer and flaking paint are also often blamed on climatic fluctuations. We tend to draw conclusions from climate graphs without really knowing when objects are at risk. Why do we look at graphs rather than at objects? Probably because they are easier to read than objects. Of course, once an object shows new damage, it is too late. But if objects are not monitored, how do we know if the damage is new and when and under what circumstances it occurred?
Given the high cost of climate installations and the damage that they may inadvertently cause, there is urgent need to develop a clear understanding of the relationship between the museum climate Article author Paul van Duin examining a oak cabinet in the Rijksmuseum.
The Green Museum: A Primer on Environmental Practice / Edition 1
Similarly constructed cabinets and wall It is noteworthy that research related to this relationship has paneling of that period are often in comparable condition. Analyzing large groups of museum objects could climate graphs is essential in developing more rational guidelines give the museum community much insight into the reaction of for climate specifications. A related question which might either complicate or simplify matters is how much risk we are prepared to take.
In recent decades, there has been a cost actually might increase risks. For example, the failure of an tendency to relax these specifications slightly. Still, these broader extensive air-conditioning system may result in abnormal condi- climate specifications, which generally allow for seasonal fluctua- tions. Recent accommodation of air-conditioning, but also by excessive moisture research indicates that these revised specifications will not result buildup in walls or heavy condensation on windows. Costs for in damage, but the findings have yet to fully convince the museum installation, maintenance, and energy consumption are high.
Per- community. The involvement of conservators and curators in sys- haps the limited funds of museums would be better used for other tematically monitoring museum objects instead of only looking at purposes. Left: A photograph taken upon acquisition.